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A Timeline of Oppression and Resistance

November 28, 2022
On November 28th, the family members of Kashmiri female political prisoner Sofi Fehmeeda informed us that she has been bedridden for weeks. She cannot move without a wheelchair. Prison doctors have recommended her to undergo urgent back surgery. Despite her critical state of health, she has not been shifted to any hospital. She is being…
November 26, 2022
On 26th November, the State Investigation Agency questioned and intimidated senior pro-freedom leader Professor Abdul Gani Bhat for nearly 8 hours after he was summoned by the probing agency at Jammu interrogation center. He was being probed for allegedly supporting the pro-freedom armed resistance.[15] [15] https://freepresskashmir.news/2022/11/26/sia-questions-hurriyat-leader-for-8-hours-in-militancy-funding-case-say-officials/
November 26, 2022
On 26th November, Indian authorities in south Kashmir’s Islamabad district seized thirteen properties belonging to the socio-religious welfare organization, Jamaat-e-Islam, under Unlawful Activities Prevention Act. India has launched a systematic crackdown against Jamaat-e-Islami, a Muslim organization that is known in Kashmir for providing assistance to the destitute and running schools for the disadvantaged and poor.…
November 23, 2022
On 23rd November, the Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh High Court issued a summon notice to its three advocates after a complaint regarding committing “professional and other misconduct” was filed by Secretary to the Government, Department of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs Achal Sethi. The three advocates are Mian Abdul Qayoom, Ghulam Nabi Thoker and…
November 22, 2022
On November 22nd, Kashmiri human rights activist Khurram Parvez completed a year in illegal Indian detention. On November 22, 2021, India’s National Investigation Agency (NIA), raided Parvez’s home and office for approximately 14 hours, seizing his and his family members’ laptop, mobile phone, and books. Khurram Parvez was charged under the Indian Penal Code and…
November 14, 2022
On 14th November, Kashmiri Muslim students were beaten up by Hindu nationalists for allegedly supporting Pakistan in a cricket match between Pakistan and England. The incident happened at Lajpat Rai Group of Institutions in Punjab[7]. Many Kashmiri students were injured and were hospitalized. Instead of taking action against the individuals who attacked Kashmiri students, the…
November 10, 2022
On November 10th, Indian state banned entry and usage of at least nine properties including a yet to be functional school building belonging to socio-religious welfare organization Jamaat-e-Islami, following instructions by the notorious State Investigation Agency. The directions have been issued under the draconian Unlawful Activities Prevention Act. The Government of India has already declared…
November 9, 2022
On 9th November, Indo-Israel Agriculture Project announced its plan to establish the proposed “Centers of Excellence” in occupied Jammu and Kashmir. Under the agriculture attache MASHAV (Israel’s agency for international Development Cooperation) at the Embassy of Israel in India, these agricultural centers are going to be developed. India and Israel have for long shared strategic…
November 7, 2022
On November 7th, a study revealed that a huge majority of Kashmiri civilians, including minors, who were shot at with pellet guns by Indian military forces and received eye injuries have suffered some degree of vision loss. Pellet guns were widely used by the Indian state during the 2016 pro-freedom civilian uprising in Kashmir to…
November 4, 2022
On November 4th, the Indian state seized the house of jailed Kashmiri pro-freedom leader Shabir Ahmad Shah, falsely accusing him of “money-laundering”, under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act 2002. The Act has been weaponized against Kashmiri pro-freedom leaders, resulting in their detentions, harassment of their family members, and seizure of their houses. By doing…
November 1, 2022
On 1st November, an Indian Court in Bengaluru sentenced a 21-year-old Kashmiri engineering student, Faiz Rasheed, to 5-Year imprisonment for expressing verbal support for the pro-freedom Kashmiri armed fighters. He was accused of “intending to disrupt the sovereignty and integrity of India”. He has been booked under the draconian Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, which has…
October 25, 2022
On 25th October, Moulana Muhammad Abbas Ansari, a religious leader and former chairman of the Hurriyat Conference, an alliance of Kashmiri parties, died. The 86-year-old leader died at his home in Srinagar. He had been ailing for some years and had lately been hospitalized for a few days. In a tweet by Hurriyat Conference, it…
October 18, 2022
On 18th October, India’s notorious State Investigation Agency, responsible for overseeing detentions and raids against political dissidents, conducted a raid at the house of a social media user at an area known as Magam. The user, currently unidentified, was intimidated and his home raided, under the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act (UAPA), for his posts on…
October 18, 2022
On the 18th October, the Jammu and Kashmir High Court directed the Superintendent of Jammu Jail to allow a 19-year-old political prisoner from north Kashmir to appear in the BSc 3rd Semester examination taking place this month. Wasim Ahmed Malik, a resident of an area known as Bandipora, was arrested by police on charges of…
October 18, 2022
On 18thOctober, Kashmiri female journalist, Sanna Irshad Mattoo, was barred from traveling to New York by the Indian authorities. Mattoo won a Pulitzer award this year for her commendable work in photojournalism. Mattoo tweeted that “I was on my way to receive the Pulitzer award (@Pulitzerprizes) in New York but I was stopped at immigration…
October 17, 2022
On October 17th, a group of unidentified men, brought down the signboard of the All Parties Hurriyat Conference, the most prominent pro-freedom forum in Kashmir. In various video clips, viral on social media, the mob can be seen pulling down the signboard from the Hurriyat office. In a statement, Hurriyat stated that it “denounces the…
October 14, 2022
On October 14th, a charge sheet was filed by the infamous State Investigation Agency against a Kashmiri journalist Fahad Shah and a Kashmiri PhD scholar in an alleged “narrative militancy” case. “Narrative militancy” is a term manufactured by the Indian state to incriminate any opinion or expression that calls for Kashmir’s freedom from India or…
October 11, 2022
On 11th October, family members of the jailed Kashmiri pro-freedom leader, Altaf Shah, informed us that he died, weeks after being diagnosed with last-stage cancer. He was denied medical care at the right time despite suffering from such a grave ailment. Shah’s family was not allowed to meet him, or see him, even as he…
October 11, 2022
On the same day, the National Investigation Agency of India conducted raids at multiple locations across Jammu and Kashmir including the residence of rector Darul Uloom Raheemiyyah (one of the most prominent religious schools in the valley) Moulana Rehmatullah Qasmi. Qasmi had recently issued a strong statement against the crackdown and detention of many religious…
October 11, 2022
On the same day, the National Investigation Agency of India arrested the chairperson of Al-Huda Educational Trust (AHET), Mohammad Ameer Shamshi, under the draconian Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, as the agency carried out searches in eight districts of Jammu and Kashmir. AHET is an Islamic social and educational welfare organization responsible for setting up schools…
October 5, 2022
On 5th of October, a Kashmiri civilian, Asif Ahmed, was killed in Pulwama area of Kashmir valley. While the police maintains that the personnel's rifle went off accidentally, such police versions of Kashmiri civilian killings have been proven to be false in the past.[3][4] [3] https://freepresskashmir.news/2022/10/05/cop-kills-civilian-in-pulwama-former-arrested-fir-registered/ [4] https://www.trtworld.com/magazine/did-indian-forces-stage-another-fake-gunfight-to-kill-kashmiri-civilians-43015
October 4, 2022
On October 4th, the Indian state suspended mobile internet services in parts of Jammu and Rajouri districts, claiming that there’s a possibility of “misuse by miscreants” which may cause “deterioration in public order”. The temporary suspension of the internet services comes while Home Minister of India Amit Shah is on a visit to the area.…
October 1, 2022
On 1st October, Kashmiri pro-freedom leader, Altaf Ahmed Shah, was diagnosed with renal cancer that had metastasized and spread to other parts of his body, including his bones. Altaf Ahmed Shah, 65-year-old, is a leader of a prominent pro-freedom organization called Tehreek-e-Hurriyat, and has been incarcerated in Tihar Jail since July 2017. He led the…
September 27, 2022
On 27th September, prominent Kashmiri fruit trader Mudasir Ahmed Bhat said that the halting of trucks along the Srinagar-Jammu national highway by the state authorities has led to a loss of around Rs 5 billion to the growers, buyers, and dealers in the month of September. Roadworks have halted thousands of trucks carrying millions of…
September 25, 2022
On 25th September, police in North Kashmir’s Bandipora district seized a residential house after accusing the owners of sheltering pro-freedom armed fighters. The house belongs to a Kashmiri civilian named Bashir Ahmad Mir.[13] [13] https://thekashmirwalla.com/bandipora-police-attaches-residential-house-for-sheltering-militants/
September 20, 2022
On 20th September, the State Investigating Agency (SIA) raided the office of Falah-e-Aam (Welfare of All) Trust in the Sopore area of north Kashmir’s Baramulla district. This year, on June 14th, the Jammu and Kashmir School Education Department ordered cessation of academic activities in schools run by Falah-e-Aam. The schools, numbering more than 300, of…
September 20, 2022
On 20th September, 90-year-old Abdul Ahad Rah passed away at his native in Srinagar awaiting a meeting for over 22 years with two of his sons who were arrested by Delhi Police in Nepal, and were never traced afterwards. Both of Ahad’s sons Muhammad Shafi Rah (then 30) and Mushtaq Ahmad Rah (then 25), had…
September 19, 2022
On 19th September, video emerged on social media of a school in Kulgam’s Nagam area, in which Kashmiri Muslim students are seen performing Hindu rituals and singing Hindu hymns. The video shared by several social media users shows several school children, including Hijab clad female students, repeating a Hindu hymn after a reciter on the…
September 17, 2022
On 17th September, two days after detaining many prominent religious scholars and community leaders in Kashmir, the Indian government today arrested another renowned religious preacher, Sarjan Barkati. This is not the first time Barkati has been arrested. Following the killing of popular pro-freedom armed commander, Burhan Wani, in 2016, Barkati was kept under arbitrary detention…
September 15, 2022
On 15th September, three prominent Kashmiri Muslim religious scholars and community leaders were arrested by the Indian authorities and booked under the Public Safety Act. The three scholars include Moulana Abdul Rasheed Dawoodi, Moulana Mushtaq Ahmad Veeri, and Moulana Abdul Majeed Dar Al-Madni. The detainees have been shifted to Jammu, miles away from their homes.…
September 14, 2022
On 14th September, family members of Muslim Kashmiri female political prisoners in New Delhi’s Tihar Jail stated in a conversation with us that the Hindu right-wing jail authorities are installing Hindu idols in wards where the Muslim Kashmiri female political prisoners are kept, in order to antagonize them. Additionally, when the prisoners recite the Quran,…
September 12, 2022
On 12th September, the Supreme Court of India rejected a plea by the father of a Kashmiri civilian, Amir Magray, murdered by the Indian state in a fake encounter in Jammu and Kashmir’s Hyderpora area last year. The plea sought permission for the exhumation of Amir’s body and handing it over to the family for…
September 8, 2022
On 8th September, a BBC report revealed that the Indian army has been using civilian vehicles for counterinsurgency operations and night patrolling. The BBC traveled to 15 villages in South Kashmir to learn more about the practice and it found that many civilians have been intimidated into handing over their vehicles to Indian armed personnel.…
September 7, 2022
On 7th September, Indian state arrested two Kashmiris and labeled them as “hybrid-militants”, a category that the state uses arbitrarily to label any pro-freedom Kashmiri as a “terrorist”. The category is commonly used in Kashmir to dehumanize Kashmiris who provide logistical support to pro-freedom armed groups, or merely have sympathetic thoughts or feelings towards the…
September 3, 2022
On 3rd September, the Indian state arrested a local cleric in the Kashmiri region of Chenab Valley, 22-year-old Kashmiri, namely Abdul Wahid, and falsely labeled him as a “Pakistani agent”. The detainee was a teacher at a local religious school, Madeenatul Uloom Darasgah, where he used to teach kids the Holy Quran. The family of…
September 3, 2022
On the same day, in a report by Press Trust of India, a senior officer of Indian occupation forces announced that a tear gas shell-dropping drone system has been developed by them that can be used by police for “controlling protesters and rioters”. He said the “drone tear smoke launcher” can be used for launching…
September 2, 2022
On 2nd September, Amnesty International said in a briefing that the Indian state has drastically intensified the repression of rights in Jammu and Kashmir in the three years since the change in status of the region. The new briefing, “We are being punished by the law”: Three years since of abrogation of Article 370 in…
August 27, 2022
On 27th August, a local court in Chandigarh acquitted 20 Hindu nationalists who had roughed up and assaulted Kashmiri religious leader, Mirwaiz Umar Farooq, during a seminar on Kashmir conflict resolution in Chandigarh a few years back. Stones and pots had been hurled at the leader by the Hindu nationalists. While the pro-BJP court claimed…
August 26, 2022
On 26th August, Kashmir Valley’s chief cleric and pro-freedom leader, Mirwaiz Umar Farooq, was disallowed to lead the Friday prayers at the prominent Jamia mosque in Srinagar. Mirwaiz was stopped by police outside the gate of his residence when he was leaving for the mosque. Earlier, in an interview with BBC Hindi, Indian colonial governor…
August 26, 2022
On the same day, Indian forces in Kashmir claimed to have arrested three Kashmiri boys who were presented as ‘over-ground workers’, a term created by the Indian state to refer to those Kashmiris who support or sympathize with the indigenous armed struggle for self-determination. The term has often been used to justify the illegal detention…
August 20, 2022
On 20th August, nine Kashmiri school-teachers were suspended by the Indian state for not hoisting an Indian flag in their schools. Around 8 of these 9 suspended teachers were Muslims. The suspension comes following the Indian state’s campaign of enforcing the hoisting of the Indian flag over every household, school, and workplace in Kashmir.[16] [16]…
August 18, 2022
On August 18th, the Jammu and Kashmir Wakf Board, an institute run by the Indian state through which it controls the Muslim shrines in Kashmir, announced that it will no longer allow donation system at these shrines, striking another blow at the autonomy of the religious life of the Kashmiri Muslim community. The Muslims of…
August 17, 2022
On August 17th, the Chief Electoral Officer of Indian-occupied Jammu and Kashmir Hirdesh Kumar announced that after abrogation of Article-370, every citizen of India who lives in Kashmir, for job, education, or business purpose, can cast vote in the upcoming assembly elections in the occupied territory. He further added that he expects that these additional…
August 16, 2022
On August 16th, a Kashmiri was killed by unidentified gunmen. Without any investigation and presentation of evidence, the police identified a Kashmiri pro-freedom armed fighter, Adil Ahmad Wani, as the perpetrator of the killing. The family members of Wani have been arrested, and their house has also been seized by the Indian state. Under no…
August 15, 2022
On August 15th, the Indian state announced its decision to rename 199 schools/colleges and roads in Kashmir after members of Indian armed forces. The same armed forces have persistently violated the human rights of Kashmiris and committed war crimes against them. Nomenclature is used by the Indian state to inflict psychological trauma on Kashmiris.[12] [12]…
August 13, 2022
On August 13th, the Indian Sub-divisional Magistrate in Kashmir put under suspension the Executive Officer of Municipal Council in an area called Magam, over ‘Insult to National Flag’. Some Indian flags were spotted in a garbage truck in the area and consequently, without any inquiry as to how the flags ended up there, the Kashmiri…
August 11, 2022
On August 11th, the Jammu and Kashmir High Court rejected the petition of Abdul Razak Ahanger, who died during the pendency of the petition. He had approached the Jammu and Kashmir High Court 17 years back demanding compensation for the death of his son and also an inquiry into his death. According to him, in…
August 8, 2022
On 8th of August, the National Investigation Agency carried out raids at multiple places in the Jammu and Doda districts of Jammu and Kashmir against members of a banned social welfare organization called Jamaat-e-Islami. Jamaat is known in Kashmir for setting up schools for the needy, creating infrastructures of support for the orphans and the…
August 6, 2022
On August 6th, the Indian state announced that it shall not permit Muharram procession, a procession that is very important to the religious life of Shia-Muslim community. The police announced that the major Muharram procession from Guru Bazar to Dal-Gate in the capital of Kashmir, Srinagar, shall not be allowed. The major Shia processions of…
August 6, 2022
On the same day, the Chief Education Officer issued orders to numerous schools in Kashmir, asking them to ensure that all members of the school, including students, teachers and all the workers, shall hoist the Indian flag at their homes and school buildings. In the order that has been issued, the Chief Education Officer states…
August 5, 2022
On 5th August, 32-year-old Manzoor Ahmed Lone, son of Mohammed Abdullah Lone, who was a resident of Kulgam area of Kashmir, received a bullet injury during the gunfight that broke out between Indian occupation forces and pro-freedom armed fighters. Manzoor was taken to the hospital after being injured, however, he succumbed to his injuries in…
August 3, 2022
On 3rd August, following the petition of Kashmiri resistance leader Asiya Andrabi, the Delhi High Court issued notice to the notorious National Investigation Agency (NIA) concerning the agency's decision to seize Andrabi’s house. Andrabi has been placed under detention for the past four years and booked under the UAPA for her pro-freedom political activism, for…
August 3, 2022
On the same day, following the coercive “Har Ghar Tiranga” scheme, under which the Indian authorities are forcing Kashmiris to hoist the Indian flag at their households and workplaces, a Hindu nationalist Brahmin activist Sandeep Mawa affixed tricolor on the gate of Hurriyat office in Srinagar. The move aims at inflicting a sense of defeat…
August 1, 2022
On 1st August, pro-freedom Kashmiri leader Yasin Malik, who was on hunger strike in Tihar Jail for the last 10 days, discontinued his fasting after the Indian jail authorities informed him that his demands have been conveyed to the government. Yasin went on hunger strike demanding a fair and impartial trial, following the Indian government’s…
July 29, 2022
On 29th July, Indian authorities sealed five more residential houses of Kashmiri Muslims under UAPA in Srinagar. The seizure was justified by stating that the houses were being used for pro-freedom political activities, and any such activity is labelled as “terrorism” by the Indian state. By depriving people of their homes, the Indian state aims…
July 28, 2022
On 28th July, the Jammu and Kashmir colonial administration issued a list of eighteen educational institutions which were given names after the members of Indian armed forces personnel. The move is meant to inflict psychological trauma upon Kashmiris and to humiliate the schoolkids, as they have been subjected to persistent human rights violations at the…
July 27, 2022
On 27th July, Kashmiri journalist, Aakash Hassan was barred from traveling abroad as authorities at airport in New Delhi stamped his boarding pass with ‘canceled without prejudice’. Journalist Aakash Hassan wrote on his Twitter handle that immigration officials at the airport in New Delhi barred him from boarding a flight to Colombo, Sri Lanka. He…
July 26, 2022
On 26th July, four days after pro-freedom Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front chief Yasin Malik went on a hunger strike in Tihar jail, the jail administration reportedly put him on intravenous (IV) fluid or glucose. Malik has stopped eating food since 22 July, protesting against his prolonged illegal detention and unjust life imprisonment sentence. (…
July 22, 2022
On July 22nd, pro-freedom Kashmiri leader and chief of Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front Yasin Malik, who is currently lodged in Tihar Jail after being sentenced to life imprisonment for his involvement in the right to self-determination movement, announced a hunger strike until death. ( Source: https://freepresskashmir.news/2022/07/22/jklf-chief-yasin-malik-announces-hunger-strike-unto-death-in-new-delhi-jail/ )
July 20, 2022
On 20th July, the Government of India approved construction of 6,000 accommodations for Hindu migrant employees working in the disputed territory. The accommodations would be in the form of separate and militarized settlements. After the year 2010, around 3,800 Brahmins have shifted to the valley and lived in such settlements, working in different government sectors.…
July 15, 2022
On 15th July, the Jammu and Kashmir colonial administration constituted a seven-member committee to enforce the implementation of the “Har Ghar Jhanda” scheme across the occupied territory. The scheme involves hoisting of an Indian flag over every house in Kashmir, by force if necessary. The state is coercing the Kashmiri population into identifying with the…
July 11, 2022
On 11th July, the Jammu and Kashmir Police, under Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, granted sanction for the confiscation of four residential houses and seizure of three vehicles that are reported to have provided assistance to pro-freedom activism. UAPA allows the Indian state to seize the property of any political dissident in Kashmir, and also suspend…
July 9, 2022
On 9th July, the colonial Administrative Council which met under the chairmanship of the Lieutenant Governor, Manoj Sinha, approved the change of names of Directorates in the Social Welfare Department. The decision will rename the Mission Directorate, Integrated Child Development Services; Mission Directorate, Integrated Child Protection Scheme; and State Resource Center for Women as Directorate…
July 9, 2022
On 9th July, a Kashmiri 21-year-old boy named Muslim Ahmed Lone was picked up from his house by Indian state officials in Srinagar. According to the family members, the officials, all dressed in civilian clothing, later handed over his dead body to them. The police have issued a statement in which they acknowledge picking him…
July 9, 2022
On 9th July, the Jammu and Kashmir colonial administration approved transfer of around 9 acres to Kashmiri Hindu employees. The move is part of the broader move aimed at settling Hindus in the valley, this altering the Muslim majority status of the valley. ( Source: https://thekashmirwalla.com/j-k-govt-approves-transfer-of-71-kanals-to-migrant-govt-employees/ )
July 7, 2022
On 7th July, the Administrative Council which met under the chairmanship of the Lieutenant Governor of occupied Kashmir, Manoj Sinha, approved the enhancement of ex-gratia relief to the next-of-kin (NoK) of occupying armed forces based in the valley. The ex-gratia award shall range from Rs 5.00 lacs to Rs 25.00 lacs in favor of NoK…
July 4, 2022
On 4th July, the Jammu and Kashmir administration nominated nodal officers for “successful implementation of the initiative Har Ghar Tiranga”. The initiative aims at having, by force if necessary, an Indian flag hoisted over each house in Kashmir. The appointed nodal officers have to ensure that every house will hoist the Indian flag. The initiative…
July 2, 2022
On 2nd July, the fruit growers and dealers of north Kashmir held a peaceful protest at Fruit Mandi (Fruit Market) Sopore over the stoppage of fruit-laden trucks along Srinagar-Jammu highway in view of the Hindu Amarnath Yatra. Due to the Yatra pilgrimage, the state authorities have heavily increased military checkpoints, forced Kashmiri Muslim shopkeepers to…
July 2, 2022
On 2nd July, Sanna Irshad Mattoo, a Kashmiri photojournalist who recently won the prestigious Pulitzer Prize award, said that authorities at the Delhi airport denied her permission to travel abroad for a scheduled photography exhibition in Paris. Mattoo was scheduled to travel from Delhi to Paris today for a book launch and photography exhibition as…
July 2, 2022
On 2nd July, two Kashmiri civilians were arrested and have been booked under Public Safety Act (PSA) for their “subversive” activities in the Doda district of Kashmir. The two civilians were labeled as “over ground workers (OGW)”, a category that the state uses arbitrarily to label any dissident Kashmiri as a “terrorist”. The category is…
July 1, 2022
On 1st July, Jammu and Kashmir High Court directed the authorities to allow the family of Amir Magrey, a civilian who was killed in last year’s Hyderpora fake encounter and then falsely labeled as a “terrorist”, to perform his funeral prayer. The court has, however, refused to allow the exhumation of Amir's body. Amir’s family…
2020
The Indian government instituted a new “Domicile Law” for the Jammu and Kashmir, allowing certain classes of Indians to become permanent residents of Kashmir. India started issuing certificates to Indians that would permit them to get employment in Kashmir and make them eligible to purchase land. India expands its military bases in Kashmir, further militarizing…
2019
On August 5, the Indian government abrogated Article 370 and revokes Article 35A, putting to an end the last remnants of the so-called “autonomy” and “special status” that India had offered to Kashmiris as an incentive after it militarily occupied them. The removal of these articles paves the way for Indians citizens to settle in…
2018
India launched a massive crackdown against the pro-freedom leadership in Kashmir. All the major activists were detained by the National Investigation Agency of India and sent to jails outside of Kashmir.
2016
Indian forces murdered Burhan Wani, the 22-year old pro-freedom armed commander, who had become widely popular, partly because of his social media use to condemn Indian atrocities against Kashmiris. The killing was followed by widespread protests against the Indian occupation. Indian forces killed dozens and blind hundreds of young Kashmiris by pellet-guns that otherwise are…
2010
The Indian military killed three Kashmiri civilians in Machil, Kupwara, and falsely claimed them to be “Pakistani terrorists.” In June, 17-year-old Tufail Mattoo was killed in Srinagar when Indian forces shot his head with a teargas shell. His death led to an intense months-long civilian uprising. Indian forces respond by killing more than 100 young…
2009
In May, the rape and murder of two Kashmiri women in Shopian led to widespread protests across Kashmir. Independent investigations held that Indian forces were involved and the doctors concluded that the women were raped. The Indian government falsely maintained that the women drowned in a stream and ended the investigation. 2700 unmarked mass graves…
2008
The Indian governor and members of the local pro-India political elite gave 100 acres of land in Kashmir to the Amarnath Shrine Board, a non-Kashmiri institute. The “land deal” violated the protection of land guaranteed under Article 370 and Article 35A by India to Kashmir, which limited ownership of land only to the permanent residents…
2000
On March 20, just before US President Bill Clinton’s visit to India, 35 Kashmiri Sikhs were killed by unidentified gunmen in the village of Chattisinghpora in South Kashmir. The government blamed Muslim rebels, but Kashmiris and prominent Sikh leaders (and later US officials) hold that the attack was orchestrated by Indian intelligence agencies to seek…
1994
Indian Parliament passed a resolution that claims Kashmir to be an “integral part” of India and therefore non-negotiable.
1993
All Parties Hurriyat Conference (APHC) is formed. It is an amalgamation of dozens of Kashmiri political groups. Its goal is Kashmir’s “right to self-determination” but keeps the question of whether Kashmir ought to be a separate nation-state or merge with Pakistan open. Kashmiris unite across political differences and agree that the foremost goal is an…
1991
Indian soldiers entered two villages in north Kashmir, Kunan and Poshpora, and raped dozens of Kashmiri women. Indian army frequently used rape as a weapon of war against Kashmiri women.
1990
Indian military forces carried out several massacres across Kashmir. Protests intensify and Hindu nationalist bureaucrat Jagmohan is installed as the governor. On January 21, an estimated 55-65 unarmed protesters were killed by Indian troops near Gawakadal in Srinagar. On January 25, Indian forces killed 21 protestors in Handwara town. On March 1, Indian soldiers killed…
1988
As India’s repression in Kashmir grew and all forms of pro-freedom voices were choked, organized armed resistance against Indian occupation took shape. Under international law, resistance and even armed struggle against a colonial occupation force are recognized and permitted. Resolution 3314 of the UNGA prohibited states from “any military occupation, however temporary”. The resolution went…
1957
The UN passed another resolution (UNSC Resolution 122) asserting that only the “will of the people expressed through the democratic method of a free and impartial plebiscite conducted under the auspices of the United Nations” will determine Kashmir’s final status, and stated that the J&K Constituent Assembly’s actions, including administrative or legal changes, are invalid…
1956
The J&K Constituent Assembly, which was controlled by India and used to give a democratic cover to its military-occupation, adopted a new constitution, declared the state an integral part of the Indian Union. Kashmiri activists continue to struggle for the promised self-determination.
1951
Elections were organized in the disputed territory by India. The UNSC passed a resolution (UNSC Resolution 91) stating that elections would not be a substitute for the plebiscite.
1950
India reneged on its promise of the plebiscite. The Indian Constitution came into being and Article 1 declared the entire state of J&K as a part of the territory of India. Article 370 gave a “special” status to the State of J&K. Pro-Pakistan and pro-freedom Kashmiri leaders were detained, and many were pushed into exile.
1948
India took the case of Kashmir to the United Nations. Kashmir was officially recognized as a disputed territory. The United Nations Security Council passed a resolution (UNSC Resolution 47) providing for an immediate ceasefire between India and Pakistan, withdrawal of Pakistani and Indian troops from the disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir, and a plebiscite…
1947
With the end of British colonial rule in South Asia in 1947, and the creation of the modern Indian state and Pakistan in its aftermath, most of the princely states had to accede to one of the two newly-found dominions. The British asked “Princely Rulers” to accede either to India or to Pakistan based on…
1932
Prominent Kashmiri Muslim leaders established the All Jammu Kashmir Muslim Conference, aiming at empowerment, education, and representation of Kashmiri Muslims in the government. The Maharaja claimed to redress the grievances by establishing a Praja Sabha (“Subjects’ Assembly”), however, the Muslim representation remained disproportionately negligible and Muslims continued to face systemic and institutional marginalization.
1931
On July 13, during the trial of Abdul Qadeer, who was accused of encouraging Kashmiris to rise up against the tyranny of the Dogra, people gathered in Srinagar. The Dogra troops massacred 22 Kashmiris. Protests erupted all over Kashmir following the massacre but the uprising was brutally suppressed.
1865
Kashmiri shawl weavers rose against the backbreaking conditions and taxations Dogra subjected them to. The regime brutally crushed the uprising and in the three decades following the protest, the number of Kashmiri shawl weavers decreased from 28,000 to just over 5,000. The participants in the revolt were drowned and severely punished. Despite the setback, however,…
1846
In 1846, after the British East India Company prevailed over the Sikh Empire in the First Anglo-Sikh War, the British sold Kashmir, then ruled by the Sikh Empire, to a Hindu Rajput dynasty, the Dogra. This was a reward for Gulab Singh, a Dogra who served as the ruler of Jammu in the Sikh Empire…
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